Pakistan & Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
The Non-Aligned Movement short form is NAM presently consists of 120 members as compared to the 25 that attended the first Summit held in erstwhile Yugoslavia in 1961.
The Movement traces its origin to the Bandung Conference of 1955, which was co-sponsored by Pakistan, alongwith India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Indonesia.
Pakistan, however, did not attend the first Summit due to its membership of the CENTO and SEATO. Pakistan has participated in the deliberations of NAM as a guest until its assumption of full membership during the 1979 Havana Summit.
Q: When Pakistan joined the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?
Answer: Pakistan joined Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1979.
Q: How many members are there in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 2020?
Answer: There are 120 members in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?
Criteria for joining the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?
The 1961 Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement determined that a country seeking membership must fulfil the following criteria:
- i. Should either follow or show a trend in favour of an independent and non-aligned policy, based on the co-existence of states with different political and social systems.
- ii. Should be consistently supporting the movements for national independence.
- iii. Should not be a member of a multilateral military alliance concluded in the context of Great Power conflicts.
- iv. If the country has a bilateral military agreement with a Great Power, or is a member of a regional defence pact, the agreement or pact should not be one deliberately concluded in the context of Great Power conflicts.
- v. If the country has conceded military bases to a Foreign Power, the concession should not have been made in the context of Great Power conflicts.
The above-stated criteria, which laid the foundation of the Movement over four decades ago, does not contain any reference to ideological pre-requisites for its existence. NAM was not created to confront the socialist block nor the western powers. Its essence was not linked to ideologies but to provide a forum for countries pursuing independent and non-aligned policies. All its principles are still valid regardless of the political regime which might prevail in the world. This visionary character of its fundamentals has led to countries becoming NAM members or observers even after the end of the Cold War.
In the post-Cold War transformed world, the Non-Aligned Movement has evolved the view that the collapse of the bipolar system has not ended injustice and inequality or eradicated conflicts to bring about a universal, just and durable peace. Instead, it has led to a more complex and disquieting world situation. The NAM, therefore, places emphasis on working further towards the establishment of a new system of international relations characterized by an absence of war, fear and all forms of intolerance, and based on peace, justice, equality, democracy and full respect for principles enshrined in the UN Charter and international law.
The Non-Aligned Movement has also recognized that Cold War-era legacies such as foreign occupation, foreign military bases, the use or threat of use of force, pressure, interference in internal affairs and sanctions are inconsistent with international law and still constitute a major disturbing factor to establishing fair and equitable international relations. NAM member states have, therefore, emphasized the need to continue with their collective efforts for the removal of all such legacies.
Pakistan shares the view that the Non-Aligned Movement has made an admirable contribution in the past to the cause of freedom and liberty, to the struggle against colonialism and racial discrimination. It represented the voice of a large majority of the newly-independent developing countries in support of their common interests, cause of freedom and respect for human rights. Pakistan has also advocated the need for the Movement to continue to promote peace and economic development amongst its member states since the two are inter-related. Without development, there can neither be peace nor security. Similarly, development cannot be attained in the absence of peace.
Pakistan has continued to play an important role in the deliberations of NAM and is regarded as one of its key members. We have substantially contributed to NAM’s unity and solidarity as well as in giving the movement an independent and objective perspective. We have actively participated in the NAM Summits and Ministerial meetings. The last XII NAM Summit was held on 2-3 September 1998 in Durban, South Africa. The Summit concluded with the adoption of a Final Document which spelt out NAM’s perspective on contemporary political, security, economic and social issues.
While referring to Kashmir in his opening address at the XII Summit, then President Mandela of South Africa and Chairman of NAM, stated, “all of us remain concerned that the issue of Jammu and Kashmir should be solved through peaceful negotiations and should be willing to lend all the strength we have to the resolution of this matter”.
Pakistan was instrumental in evolving NAM consensus positions on the following important issues:
PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
In view of the unresolved Kashmir issue, it has been our efforts that the NAM decisions reflect an emphasis on peaceful settlement of disputes. We have, therefore, consistently urged the Movement to expeditiously evolve a mechanism for conflict resolution. In this context, the Final Document of the XII NAM Summit, held in Durban, had reiterated the need to secure a peaceful settlement of all outstanding issues in South Asia.
Pakistan has fully supported NAM’s principled position on the issue of global nuclear disarmament within a time-bound framework. On the question of the South Asian nuclear tests, the XII NAM Summit affirmed “the need for bilateral dialogue to secure peaceful solutions to all outstanding issues and the promotion of confidence and security building measures and mutual trust”. The Summit also opposed unilateral, coercive or discriminatory measures being applied against Non-Aligned countries. This is a clear endorsement of Pakistan’s position that a solution to the situation arising from the nuclear tests cannot be promoted in an atmosphere of coercion and pressure.
Ever since its inception, NAM has consistently reiterated the continued validity of the fundamental right of all peoples to self-determination, the exercise of which, in the case of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, is essential to ensure the eradication of all these situations and to guarantee universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. In this regard, the Movement has strongly condemned ongoing brutal repression of the legitimate aspirations for self-determination of peoples under colonial, alien domination and foreign occupation in various regions of the world.
The XII NAM Summit had stressed the need to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, regardless of race, religion or nationality of the victims or perpetrators of terrorism. The Summit, however, endorsed, in principle, the call for the definition of terrorism and to differentiate it from the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, for self-determination and national liberation.
EXPANSION OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The XII NAM Summit inter-alia reaffirmed that Security Council reform must be adopted by a two-third majority of the UN membership and that there should be no imposed time limit. The Non-Aligned countries have so far consistently maintained the position that, in absence of consensus or general agreement, expansion should take place only in the non-permanent category.
Since NAM predominantly comprises developing countries, it has consistently paid considerable attention on economic issues. The Movement has maintained its long-standing position on the need for conscious steps to regulate the market measures as a means of ensuring that growth in the world economy and trade is both dynamic as well as equitable. Accordingly, the Movement has rejected recent efforts to inject new conditionalities and protectionism, such as the insertion of the labour standards issues in the World Trade Organization. NAM has called for the urgent convening by the United Nations of a global monetary conference to address the old and new problems of the international financial system.
Pakistan desires to see NAM play an increasingly effective role in all international fora, particularly in the United Nations. It is important that the Movement safeguards and preserves the principled positions evolved by it on a wide range of international issues.